READING PASSAGE 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-28 which are based on Reading Passage 2 below
Vehicle Safety Systems
Although drivers and their passengers are encased in the event of a crash, people ‘ hit by a car have no protection. Now that could change thanks to a new system built i into a vehicle that will enhance a pedestrian’s safety. Every’ month about 3,400 ! pedestrians are killed in traffic accidents on the roads in the US, and a similar ! number die in Europe. Some 30% of the injuries included in this group are caused by ! an impact with a windscreen or its frame.
A European-wide collaboration led by Roger Hardy of the Cranfield Impact Centre at : Cranfield University close to Bedford in the UK has devised an experimental system • for cars that aims to cut this death toll and decrease the risk of injuries. When the ; system registers that the car is about to hit a pedestrian, it automatically raises the rear of the bonnet (hood), releasing a giant airbag in front of the windscreen.
“The raised bonnet absorbs some of the energy of the impact, decreasing the risk of severe injury to the pedestrian,” says Hardy, whose project forms part of the European Union-funded Integrated Project on Advanced Protection Systems (APROSYS). “If it’s a large pedestrian or on a small town car, the airbag also offers a ; cushioning effect around the stiff peripheral regions of the windscreen,” he says. The ; airbag system used by Hardy was enhanced by the German company Takata Petri. : To test its efficacy when combined with the raised bonnet, they cooperated into : developing a prototype Fiat Stilo by engineers at the Fiat Research Centre in Turin, i Italy. Then the team estimated the danger of head injuries in test collisions with a ; dummy pedestrian.
A standard Stilo test hitting a pedestrian at 40 kilometres per hour would have a Ị score of around 1,000 on the Head Impact Criterion (HIC) scale. That is the i equivalent of an 18% chance of a life-threatening injury. For pedestrians hitting ; Hardy’s bonnet, the scores were reduced to between 234 and 682, whilst the normal ; windscreen airbag scores ranged between 692 and 945. Hardy’s team has also ; introduced a design in which a windscreen mounting system cushions the impact with the edge of the windscreen. This consists of a flexible Z-shaped section of : metal, that is a maximum of 15 millimetres wide, separating the windscreen from its frame so that it is able to flex inwards to absorb energy in a collision. The team says it could decrease HIC scores by over 50%.
Another APROSYS collaboration led by Jurgen Gugler at Graz University of . Technology in Austria researched how changing the shaping of the front of a truck : could reduce the risk to pedestrians. Computer stimulations of 20 accident scenarios indicated that a smooth sloping surface with a central bulge decreases the likelihood of a pedestrian involved in a front-end accident being run over by 80 to 90%. Gugler ‘ says, “The pedestrian is knocked to the side, rotated and pushed towards the : ground. You are out of the path of the oncoming truck.’’
Fiat researchers managed by Roberto Puppini have also had some success in early tests of an adaptive bumper system. Four gas springs kick in at high speeds to move ‘ the bumper forward so that it will absorb energy of an impact. So will manufacturers ; actually incorporate any of these safety innovations into their cars? Over the next two ! years, the European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP) will be phasing the results of pedestrian safety tests into its essential rating system. Poor Euro NCAP ; test results could result in less safe car models being withdrawn from the market.
This suggests that buyers and manufacturers can be persuaded to take the safety : of drivers and their passengers seriously, but it remains to be seen whether : the welfare of pedestrians is as persuasive a selling point.
For now at least, there is little else to convince car manufacturers to install these ; safety devices. Hardy says, “Recently, from the legislative point of view, there is not ! a colossal incentive for manufacturers to utilise these technologies.” Perhaps ultimately the law will have to step in so that external airbags and energy-absorbing bodywork enhance pedestrian safety as dramatically as seat belts and internal airbags ; have enhanced driver and passenger safety.
Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet.
Every month there are about 3,400 people hit by a car in the US and a similar number of casualties in 14 _______ . Actually, around 30% of them are a result of 15 _______ or its frame. To decrease road traffic accidents, a European-wide collaboration devised automatic lifting rear of 16 _______ , and a 17 _______ ahead of the windscreen working at the same time.
Hardy’s team has researched a system to cushion impacts with the outline of 18 _______. It includes an easily bent and 19 _______ metal frame with the windscreen and frame separated. But he said: According to law, although having safety devices for protection against a crash, now any manufacture companies to harness these devises could not have 20 _______.
Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-G, below.
Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 21-25 on your answer sheet.
21 A European-wide collaboration
22 European Union-funded Integrated Project
23 APROSYS collaboration
24 Euro NCAP
25 Poor Euro NCAP
A be part of schemes to decrease hazardous situations for pedestrians.
B help judge less safe vehicle models between buyers and companies.
C improve testing under the condition that a crash decreased.
D make a solution within the frequency of tests for safe pedestrians.
E study how replacing a lorry’s front side protects pedestrians.
F be persuasive as a selling point.
G improve a pedestrian’s chances.
Choose the correct letter, A, B, c or D.
Write the correct letter in boxes 26-28 on your answer sheet.
26 Which one of the following is found in the passage?
A the number of traffic accidents and rubbish on the road
B the amount of petrol gas misused and recycled
C the number of casualties in traffic accidents on the road
D the cases of car insurance in a court
27 What are the main technical devices made by Roger Hardy?
A brake system
B automatic both bonnet and airbag system
C instant front door and trunk open
D anti-slip tires during heavy rain and snow
28 The writer believed that the “Hardy’s team’’ on the system could
A decrease the Head Impact Criterion (HIC) score until over half per cent.
B be almost as safe as computer simulation tests.
C be causing significant damage to half a per cent of the Head Impact Criterion (HIC).
D reduce converting the windscreen airbag.
|20||(a) colossal incentive|