READING PASSAGE 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-28 which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
Asiatic black bear
Known as a moon bear, Jasper is an Asiatic black bear with a yellow crescent on his chest. The bear came to the Animals Asia Moon Bear Rescue Centre in Chengdu, China, from a bear farm in 2000.
When Jasper arrived, rescuers had to cut Jasper out of a tiny “crush cage.” Bear bile has been used in traditional Chinese medicine and fetches a high price. The wholesale price is approximately 4,000 yuan (approximately $580) per kilogram with each bear producing up to 5 kilograms every year in China. But it comes at a high price.
Jasper normally spent 15 years in a cage, other bears spend up to 25 years without moving in cages no bigger than their bodies. Bears are milked for bile twice a day. In China, farmers use a catheter inserted into the gall bladder or permanently open wound. In Vietnam, farmers use long hypodermic needles.
The Animals Asia has rescued 260 bears from Chinese bear farms over the past 10 years. These bears are lucky. The official number of reared bears in China is 7,000, but the Animals Asia fears the real figure is close to 10,000.
In spite of the obvious cruelty, bear farming is legal in China. Whilst the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species lists Asiatic black bears as being at the highest level of endangerment, China grants them only second-level protection, allowing them to be farmed. Although some have reported there are 15,000 bears, its figure is not a true estimate of the remaining wild population in China.
Bear farming is also practiced in Vietnam where it is illegal but remains common due to a lack of enforcement. There are approximately 4,000 bears on Vietnamese farms but even more in Laos, Cambodia and Korea. Bear farming is justified on the grounds that it satisfies the local demand for bile in China, therefore decreasing the number of bears taken from the wild. Since 1989 farmers have been allowed to breed bears in captivity and hunting wild bears has been illegal. In spite of this, a lot of wild bears are still poached for their gall bladders or to restock the farms. Sometimes bears arrive at the rescue centre with missing ribs after being caught in the wild.
Those bears that arrived at the centre have suffered from severe physical and psychological trauma. Rescued bears can’t be set free into the wild due to the longterm damage caused by their incarceration. They all need surgery to get rid of damaged gall bladders and many need additional surgery and long-term medical care because of missing claws or paws, infected necrotic wounds along with broken and missing teeth caused by biting at bars or because farmers break them to make the bears less of a hazard. Also, many have liver cancer as a result of being continually milked for bile and suffer from litany of other ailments including blindness, arthritis, peritonitis, weeping ulcers and ingrown claws.
On the other hand, with the horrors of bear farming, the rehabilitation process is amazing and inspiring to witness. It takes around a year to rehabilitate a bear. Although some have to be kept alone for the rest of their lives, most can eventually be housed with other bears. The transition in personality from animals which are violent and fearful to ones which are trusting, inquisitive and completely at ease with people is truly remarkable. Robinson says, “I have visited the rescue centre and it changed my life.” That is how powerful the bears’ stories are.
In spite of the rescue programme, bear bile extraction remains a cause of wanton and remorseless abuse. It is difficult to change attitudes when bear bile has been used in Chinese medicine for over 3,000 years to cope with “heat-related” ailments, such as eye conditions and liver disease. These days, it is used to treat conditions from hangovers to haemorrhoids. There is some evidence from western medicine that a synthetic version of the active ingredient in bear bile, ursodeoxycholic acid, is able to treat a range of disorders including hepatitis c. But traditional Chinese medicine still insists on using natural bear bile which is often contaminated with pus, blood, urine and faeces. Although healthy bear bile is free flowing and orangey-green, veterinarians describe bile leaking from the diseased gall bladders of rescued bears as “black sludge.”
The half-moon bear rescue project raises a number of critical questions. For instance, why do bears show large individual differences in response to persecution, and variations in recovery? Rescued bears are powerful ambassadors, but should so much time and money be invested in saving the lives of individuals who will not make any direct contributions to saving their species? How can people from outside China work to free bears whilst respecting their Chinese colleagues and remaining sensitive to cultural traditions?
Efforts to qurt bear farming will continue. Soon after Robinson established the Animals Asia in 1998, she negotiated an agreement with the Chinese government to work towards the eradication of bear farming. All farmers are cruel, but the very worst are identified for closure by the government and the farmers have their licences revoked. It is bears from these farms that come to the rescue centre. The Animals Asia compensates the farmers so that they can begin another business or retire. More than 40 farms have so far been closed, and China has not issued any new licences since 1994.
Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answer in boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet.
In 2000 Jasper, an Asiatic black bear in China, was called a moon bear due to embedding 14 _______ on the chest. Whilst bear farming is illegal, it is prevalent because of weak 15 _______ in Vietnam. Since 1989 hunting wild bears has been illegal in China, but breeding bears in the farmland is not prohibited. At intervals, bears are delivered to the rescue centre without 16 _______ by poachers.
Most bears that arrived at the centre have experienced 17 _______ of both physical and psychological problems to be continued. Besides, 18 _______ is caused by extracting the bile from bear’s gall. Over 3,000 years the Chinese have made use of the bile for healing illness related to both 19 _______ and _______ . In 1998 the Animals Asia was established by Robinson. She made an agreement against bear farming. Actually, she negotiated with the Chinese government to eliminate 20 _______.
Do the following statements reflect the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 2?
In boxes 21-25 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement agrees with the opinion of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the opinion of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
21 Jasper is an Asiatic black bear and it had grown in the wild.
22 China is accustomed to using the bear bile as traditional medicine from the old times.
23 The bile from bear’s gall is extracted every day.
24 Even though bear bile use has spread among the Chinese, it had no effect on them.
25 In 1998 Robinson has reported the Animals Asia to the United Nations.
Choose the correct letter, A, B, c or D.
Write the correct letter in boxes 26-27 on your answer sheet.
26 The writer reports that bear bile has been prevalent in China due to
A working a sense of beauty for women.
B using traditional medicine and a little expense
C delaying the ageing and relieving mental fatigue.
D using traditional medicine and its price being skyrocketing.
27 Jill Robinson founded the Animals Asia in 1998 in order to
A protect animals in Asian zoos.
B promote the bear rescue project to the United Nations
C protect the bear and prohibit brutal farming in Asia.
D support bear farms.
From the list below, choose the most suitable title for Reading Passage 2.
Write the appropriate letter A-E in box 28 on your answer sheet.
A Cruel bear bile business
B Increasing the bear bile supply
C Traditional Chinese medicine
D Rescue project forward
E Bear farming enforcement
|14||(a) yellow crescent|